In our country, approximately 1 million 400 thousand births take place every year. Inadequate and unbalanced nutrition before and during pregnancy brings many health problems that lead to maternal and infant deaths.
There is a close relationship between the nutrition before and during pregnancy and the baby's birth weight, brain development and health. In our country, 58% of pregnant women have iron deficiency anemia (anemia), folic acid, which is necessary for the production of blood cells, iodine, which is effective in physical and mental development, and calcium deficiencies, and play a role in bone development.
In our country, approximately 154 thousand babies are born with low birth weight every year. One in six babies born every year in the world is born with a low birth weight below 2500 grams. This rate is between 10-12% in Türkiye . One of the most important causes of low birth weight is nutritional disorders in pregnant women. During pregnancy, the need for energy and nutrients increases. If this need is not met, the nutrients needed for the baby's growth and development are supplied from the mother's own tissues. As a result, various diseases occur in the mother and resistance to infections decreases.
Inadequate and unbalanced nutrition before and during pregnancy brings birth risks for the mother, while it causes pregnancy poisoning and maternal death. In babies , it paves the way for physical and mental development retardation, a significant increase in the risk of catching diseases, and stillbirth. Long-term inadequate and unbalanced nutrition of the expectant mother leads to maternal and babies deaths. Nutrition before and during pregnancy significantly affects the health of both the mother and the baby to be born. They should consume at least 2 glasses of milk or yogurt every day.
Instead of these foods, it will be useful to consume 2-3 matchboxes of cheese or 1-2 spoons of cottage cheese. Since raw milk and cheese made from it contain harmful microbes, pasteurized milk and cheeses made from these milks should be preferred. expectant mothers should consume meat, chicken and fish as much as one egg or egg in addition to what they normally eat. If these foods cannot be consumed, lentil or chickpea soups care should be taken to consume legumes. Fresh vegetables and fruits rich in vitamins should be consumed regularly at every meal. It should be fed little by little and at frequent intervals, and should not be hungry for a long time.
Liquid oils should be preferred in meals. Care should be taken to consume olive oil during the day. In addition to legumes such as beans, chickpeas, lentils, salads with plenty of lemon, fresh onions or fruits rich in vitamin C should be consumed. Iodized salt should be used in meals. Thus, the baby is protected from goiter disease and mental retardation. Iodized salt should be stored in a dark glass jar, protected from light, sun and humid environments. Thus, the loss of iodine is prevented. If there is high blood pressure (hypertension), meals should be cooked without salt or with less salt. Excessively salty foods should not be consumed.
Smoking and alcohol should never be used. Smoking areas should be avoided. Fluid requirement increases during pregnancy. To meet this, fluid intake should be increased by drinking more water or milk, buttermilk, freshly squeezed fruit juices. You should drink at least 10 glasses of water every day. Anemia is more common during pregnancy. To prevent anemia; Care should be taken to consume more foods such as eggs, red meat, legumes, molasses, and fresh fruits and vegetables. Tea and coffee consumption should be minimized. Tea and coffee should not be drunk one hour before and one hour after meals.