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What is keratoconus?

What is keratoconus?Keratoconus is an eye condition in which the shape of the cornea deteriorates and it tapers forward and protrudes in the form of a cone.

The cornea is the transparent dome-shaped layer located in the most anterior part of the eye. This change in the cornea leads to the inability to focus the light coming into the eye in the visual field. As a result, blurred and distorted vision appears, and therefore everyday tasks such as reading and driving become difficult to perform. Keratoconus is not a condition that causes permanent blindness and can be treated in various ways.

What are the causes of keratoconus?
As a result of the research carried out, it has not been definitively determined what causes keratoconus discomfort, but in some cases it is seen that the disease is inherited from the mother or father. About 1 in 10 people with keratoconus have one of the parents of this disease. Keratoconus usually occurs in the late 10s and early 20s. The vision problems associated with the disease gradually worsen over a period of about 10 to 20 years.
It has been claimed that poor quality contact lenses may be a possible cause of keratoconus, but this has remained unproven and questionable. The corneas of people with a predisposition to keratoconus are more easily damaged by minor trauma, such as eye rubbing. If you have keratoconus, it is important to be careful not to rub your eyes. Because rubbing the eyes can damage the fine corneal tissues and make the symptoms worse. If your eyes itch for allergic reasons and you feel the need to rub, it would be good to talk to your ophthalmologist about using medications to control your allergy.

What are the symptoms of keratoconus?
Deceratoconus disease usually affects both eyes and can cause very different problems between the two eyes. Symptoms may appear differently in each eye and vary over time. At an early stage, the symptoms of keratoconus;
* Slight blurring of vision
* Slight deterioration in vision due to the fact that straight lines appear bent or wavy
* Sensitivity to light and glare
* It can be listed as redness or swelling in the eye.
In advanced stages, the symptoms become more pronounced. Some of the symptoms of advanced stage keratoconus;
* Impaired vision and increased blurred vision
* Increase in signs of myopia or astigmatism and the need for glasses
• Because the cornea protrudes, contact lenses do not fit the eye or cause discomfort.
The transition of keratoconus from an early stage to a late stage usually takes years. But in some people, the deterioration occurs more quickly. The cornea can suddenly swell and permanent hardening of the cornea, called scarring, can begin. The cornea; when this scar tissue called scar appears, it loses its softness and clarity. As a result, vision becomes even more distorted and blurred.
How is keratoconus diagnosed?
Keratoconus can be diagnosed with a routine eye examination. Your ophthalmologist examines the cornea and measures its curvature. This examination helps to detect if there is a shape change in the cornea. Your ophthalmologist can map the corneal surface using a special computer. These detailed maps clearly show the condition of the corneal surface.

How is keratoconus treatment performed?
Treatment of keratoconus depends on the symptoms and the stage of the disease. In the early stages, when the symptoms are mild, your vision can be corrected with glasses. Later, you may need to use special hard contact lenses to help the image focus correctly.
There are also other methods used to treat keratoconus. Surgically, a small curved device is inserted into the cornea to correct the curvature of the cornea. Your ophthalmologist uses a special UV ray and eye drops to strengthen the cornea. Doing this can cause the cornea to flatten or harden, helping to prevent it from becoming even more puffy.
When the symptoms are severe, your doctor may recommend a corneal transplant. With an eye transplant, your doctor replaces all or part of the diseased cornea with healthy donor corneal tissue.

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