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What is anesthesia ?

What is anesthesia  ?Anesthesia is one of the most important elements that allows a person to undergo surgery.

In order for the operation to be safe and healthy, the patient does not feel pain during the procedure, and the surgeon can work comfortably, numbing the patient's body using medical drugs is defined as anesthesia.
There are three types of anesthesia; general, regional and local anesthesia. In general anesthesia, the entire body is anesthetized and the patient's consciousness turns off. The process of numbing a certain area of the body from the waist down, such as the arm or leg, is called regional anesthesia. In this method, the attempt is made while the patient is conscious.
Local anesthesia is also performed by numbing a smaller area. For example, this method is applied in small operations such as removing moles.
In addition to general anesthesia, spinal and epidural anesthesia, which numbs the body from the waist down, and RIVA anesthesia types, which numb one arm and one leg, also make it easier for patients to survive after surgery.

Which Methods Are Preferred in Regional Anesthesia?
Regional anesthesia is preferred in surgeries where it is aimed to anesthetize below the navel. Spinal anesthesia, epidural anesthesia, or combined spinal-epidural anesthesia, in which both are applied, is applied in three ways: spinal anesthesia, epidural anesthesia, or combined spinal-epidural anesthesia. While these methods are preferred, the type and duration of the operation are taken into account.

In Which Surgeries Is It Used?
This method is preferred for caesarean section or normal delivery, inguinal hernia, bladder and anal region surgeries, hip-knee prostheses and varicocele surgery. In short, this method can be used in all kinds of surgical procedures to be performed under the navel.

What is Spinal Anesthesia?
Ensuring compliance with a single injection is defined as spinal anesthesia. The spinal cord ends at a certain level in the lumbar region. Two or three of his vertebrae are inserted Decently between the vertebrae and the injection is made. The brain membrane, which wraps the brain in the head and continues to the coccyx, is punctured and the drug is injected into the spinal fluid. This is absorbed by the nerves passing through that area, and numbness begins. The pain signals coming from here are not transmitted to the brain and the patient does not feel pain.

How is Epidural Anesthesia Performed?
The difference between this method from spinal anesthesia is that the injection is made into the epidural and a thin tube called an epidural catheter is placed in the place where it is made. approximately 8-10 cm of the 40-50 cm long tube remains inside the body. The rest is taped to the patient's shoulder. There is also a tap at the end that serves to administer medication. In case of postoperative pain, lower doses of local anesthetics are sent from here to the waist. The patient's pain is significantly controlled.

Why is Spinal Anesthesia and Combined Spinal-Epidural Anesthesia Preferred?
The fact that patients are not connected to a respirator stands out as a great advantage. On the other hand, complaints such as nausea and vomiting are more common in general anesthesia. Spinal anesthesia and combined spinal-epidural anesthesia are important in terms of ensuring immediate contact between the baby and the mother, especially during cesarean sections.
It is also medically important for the baby. Because in general anesthesia, the baby is exposed to a small amount of medication. Exposure of the baby to general anesthesia in the early stages can cause breathing problems after birth. The baby of a mother who is anesthetized from the waist down is fitter than that of a mother who is put to sleep with general anesthesia.
After the operation, the patient's recovery process is more comfortable. On the other hand, this method is especially preferred for those with respiratory system diseases and elderly patients. Spinal anesthesia and combined spinal-epidural anesthesia are also used in patients who need to be urgently operated on, even if they are full.

To Whom Can it not be done?
It is not used in those who have problems in the bleeding coagulation system, those who use blood thinners, those who have infections in the lumbar region. It is not preferred for children either. Regional anesthesia is not applied if the patient does not want it.

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