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What is hepatitis b?

What is hepatitis b?Hepatitis B is a common liver infection worldwide. The causative agent of the disease is the hepatitis B virus.

The hepatitis B virus is transmitted from person to person through blood, blood products and infected body fluids. Unprotected sex, drug use, non-sterile needles and medical devices, and pregnancy are other transmission routes. Hepatitis B; It is not transmitted by eating, drinking, swimming, kissing, coughing, using the same toilet. The disease can be acute or chronic. There may be silent carriers that show no symptoms. The disease progresses in a wide spectrum ranging from silent carrier to cirrhosis and liver cancer.
Hepatitis B vaccine and treatment

Because of the development of vaccines ,hepatitis B is a preventable disease. The protection rate of the vaccine is 90%. In our country, there is a routine hepatitis B vaccine application since infancy. If immunity is reduced in advanced ages, repeat doses are recommended. Those who have the disease and those who are actively sick are not vaccinated. Vaccination is done in 3 doses, at 0, 1 and 6 months. During pregnancy follow-up, mothers are routinely tested for hepatitis B. The aim is to protect the newborn baby. In order to prevent the spread of the disease, it is essential to inform the public about the transmission routes.a

Nutrition in patients receiving radiotherapy from the head and neck region:
The first point to be considered by patients who undergo radiotherapy due to tumors located in the head and neck region; Since surgical interventions related to the teeth cannot be performed for a long time after radiotherapy, it is necessary to complete the dental interventions by being checked by a dentist before radiotherapy starts. During radiotherapy in patients with poor oral hygiene, tooth brushing and gum care are important because side effects are more common. Things to pay attention:
• Tooth should be brushed three times a day after meals, a spoonful of baking soda should be placed in a glass of water and circulated in the mouth (without swallowing) and mouthwash should be applied three times a day.
• It is necessary to consume at least 2 liters of water per day. First of all, water or non-acidic beverages will be suitable.
• It is important to avoid cold or heat during radiotherapy and to consume “warm” drinks and foods.
• Cigarettes and alcohol should never be consumed.
• Vegetable dishes with a soft consistency should be preferred as much as possible, meat and fish consumption is very useful in terms of protein support, it will be easier for people with swallowing difficulties to consume the meat by separating it very thinly after boiling it and turning it into soup.
• In a study, it was determined that the use of “Black Mulberry Molasses” in patients undergoing radiotherapy reduced mucositis in the mouth by 38 percent.
If there is feeding difficulty despite all efforts, nutritional products given by your doctor can be used as liquids. In particular, the powdered form of the amino acid called “Glutamine” can be used easily due to protein support and, if necessary, because it reduces mouth sores.

Nutrition in patients undergoing radiotherapy for lung cancer:
• Since the trachea and esophagus are adjacent to each other, generally in lung cancer patients who receive radiotherapy; In the 2nd or 3rd week of the treatment, swallowing difficulties, a feeling of being stuck while swallowing and sore throat during meals are observed.
• These side effects are more common, especially in patients who receive chemotherapy simultaneously with radiotherapy. For this reason, warm soups that are comfortable for radiotherapy patients to swallow (can be boiled and crushed with a spoon or hand blender, or boiled and finely separated into soups)
• Food and beverages should not be hot or cold and should be “warm”.
• Since it is important to eat foods rich in protein, fish, chicken and meat must be consumed. In addition to grain foods, egg white can be consumed in large quantities by boiling, due to the high protein it contains.
• 2 liters of liquid (water or non-acidic drinks) should be consumed per day.
• Since the possibility of esophageal irritation may increase due to reflux, the meal time must be 3 hours before sleep and the patient should sit upright for at least 30 minutes after the meal.
Since there is a high probability of loss of appetite during treatment, it is necessary to eat frequently and in small portions without waiting for hunger.

Nutrition in patients undergoing radiotherapy for breast cancer:
• Of course, side effects will be less in patients who receive radiotherapy for breast cancer than in people who receive radiotherapy to the thorax or abdomen.
• The most important side effect; Since there are rashes and redness on the skin, it is necessary to keep the moisture rate of the skin high. For this reason, patients with breast cancer must take at least 2 liters of fluid regularly during radiotherapy.
• In addition to chicken, fish and meat containing high protein, foods that can be consumed comfortably such as honey and molasses should be preferred.
• Yogurt, kefir, probiotic products can be consumed in large quantities.

Nutrition in patients undergoing radiotherapy for bowel cancer (colon and rectum):

Intestinal habits change in patients undergoing radiotherapy for colorectal cancer. Diarrhea is frequently observed due to the small intestines that enter the treatment area of ​​radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Because; low-fat bulgur pilaf or whole wheat pasta, boiled potatoes, low-fat chicken meat or red meat can be consumed. Consuming bananas, apples and carrots is important for both the prevention of diarrhea and vitamin support. It can be used safely during treatment in cereal foods. Frequent but small portions are more suitable for nutrition due to decreased appetite or deterioration in taste. Consuming kefir and probiotics is recommended as they positively affect the intestinal flora.

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