What is Dyspepsia?
Dyspepsia or functional dyspepsia is the fact that a number of functional disorders, especially in the stomach and duodenum, cause discomfort in the digestive system. Accordingly; although there is no underlying organic cause in people who are dyspeptic, various dysfunctions develop in the work of the organs and different complaints about the digestive system such as indigestion, bloating, diarrhea occur. Complaints may vary from patient to patient, as well as different symptoms may develop in the same patient over time. The symptoms that appear persist for at least 1 month.
If functional dyspepsia develops, the quality of life of patients can be seriously negatively affected. Since the symptoms can persist for more than 1 to 6 months, people may suffer from long-term digestive system problems. Studies have shown that dyspeptic complaints are present in 20 percent of the society.
What Causes Dyspepsia?
It is not known exactly for what reasons dyspeptic symptoms appear. However, when there is no evidence that complaints related to the digestive system that occur in a patient develop due to organic causes or various diseases, functional dyspepsia can be diagnosed by recognizing that a number of functional disorders have developed in the relevant organs.
Although dyspepsia is not directly related to diseases, it is related to various risk factors. In this sense, the likelihood of developing dyspeptic complaints is higher in people with the following characteristics than in the rest of society:
* Gender: According to research, dyspeptic complaints are more common in women. In other words, the risk of developing dyspepsia in the digestive tract of women is higher than that of men.
* Stressful life or various psychological problems: Frequent exposure to stress in everyday life can lead to disruptions in the functions of the digestive system. Similarly, digestive problems are more common in people who experience psychological problems such as depression or anxiety.
* Smoking: When harmful habits such as smoking and alcohol consumption become constant, they can lead to disruptions in gastrointestinal functions.
* Eating habits: Inadequate, unbalanced and unhealthy eating habits cause changes and disruptions in the working order of the stomach and intestines.
* Drug use: Gastrointestinal functions may be damaged in people using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which have antipyretic and pain-relieving properties.
* Celiac disease: In this disease, which has no cure, disorders caused by dyspepsia can be observed.
* Infections or changes in the intestinal flora: Especially H, which is one of the important factors in the deterioration of the function of the stomach. in infections caused by pylori bacteria; dyspepsia may develop if the beneficial bacteria in the intestine change as a result of various factors such as increased stomach acid or improper antibiotic use.
What Are the Symptoms of Dyspepsia?
Since dyspepsia is mainly caused by functional disruptions in the stomach and duodenum, the symptoms it causes in the clinic develop in relation to these areas. The following symptoms are often considered dyspeptic complaints:
* Burning and pain in the area of the upper digestive tract
* Feeling of bloating and gas
* Feeling full quickly after eating or feeling uncomfortably full with little food
* Nausea, vomiting
* Bad bad breath
* Weight loss
How is Dyspepsia Diagnosed?
The diagnosis of dyspepsia is made when other diseases that cause similar complaints are ruled out, that is, their absence is detected. For this purpose, the history of the disease is taken in detail by the physician and a detailed physical examination is performed. If deemed necessary, October imaging and laboratory tests may be applied. Ultimately, the diagnosis of functional dyspepsia may be in question if one or more of the following symptoms have been present in the last 3 months, as well as if the symptoms began 6 months before the diagnosis of functional dyspepsia:
* Feeling of discomfort
* Early saturation
* Burning sensation in the abdomen or chest
* Feeling of satiety after eating
* The absence of an organic cause that could explain the symptoms or the absence of an underlying disease
Since dyspeptic complaints can often also be observed in different digestive problems, when conducting differential diagnosis, they can be confused with the following diseases::
* Gastroesophageal reflux disease
• Peptic ulcer disease
* Gastroparesis (lazy stomach)
* Irritable bowel syndrome
* Cancers of the upper digestive tract
The important point here is that an organic cause should not be detected in order to diagnose dyspepsia. If the person is suspected of the diseases mentioned above, the concrete evidence required for the diagnosis of these diseases should be determined. Otherwise, functional dyspepsia is diagnosed when a specific disease cannot be detected in people with dyspeptic complaints.
What is Done in the Treatment of Dyspepsia?
A lot of dyspeptic complaints, even among patients with functional dyspepsia and to be the cause of various diseases, vary in terms of type and severity of symptoms because treatment for functional dyspepsia vary from person to person. The possibility of an effective treatment depends on the correct diagnosis. In this sense, in the event of the detection of an organic pathology that leads to dyspeptic symptoms, it is necessary to carry out specific treatment of the respective disease.
When functional dyspepsia is diagnosed, symptomatic treatment is planned for the complaints of the patient. In this direction, the following approaches are often adopted in the treatment of dyspepsia:
* Dyspepsia accompanied by burning in the abdomen or chest; antacids, antihistamines, or proton pump inhibitors that regulate stomach acid are primarily prescribed. Symptoms of H. if it is determined that the pylori infection is the cause, antibiotic therapy may be prescribed.
* Prokinetic drugs, drugs that increase gastric emptying, or intestinal regulatory products may be recommended for complaints of indigestion or bloating. It is important at this point to gain an adequate, balanced and healthy eating habit. If deemed necessary, nutrition can be arranged professionally by a specialist dietitian.
* Since stress is an important risk factor in the development of dyspepsia, recommendations for stress management can be given; if necessary, treatments for psychological disorders such as stress or anxiety disorders can be planned. If necessary, drug therapy or psychotherapy may also be preferred.
* Harmful habits such as smoking and alcohol should be stopped.
* Regular exercise is useful for regulating gastrointestinal functions. It is very important for people who are overweight to reach the ideal weight for the health of the digestive system.