In the presence of a mass in the suspected organ, the relevant area can be clearly identified by imaging the biopsy method. The procedure, which is mostly done to determine whether the tissue or tumor is benign or malignant, is also done to determine the stage and course of the disease in some infectious or inflammatory diseases called inflammatory. With biopsy methods performed using local anesthesia, a small piece is taken by entering the lesion in the suspicious area with a needle and sent to the pathology laboratory to determine the result. Although the procedures performed according to the biopsy method differ, the biopsy process usually takes about 15 minutes and there is no need for stitches afterwards.
How is a biopsy done?
Biopsy, which does not pose any health hazard when performed by a specialist physician under appropriate conditions, is performed using different equipment and techniques depending on the region where it is performed. Some biopsies are performed with imaging, some during and after surgery, and some under local anesthesia.
How is a lung biopsy done?
In the presence of lung diseases or lung cancer detected after a chest X-ray or tomography, lung biopsy is performed for a rapid and definitive diagnosis. Local anesthesia is applied to the area of the mass whose presence in the lung is visualized, tissue pieces are taken from the relevant area by fine needle aspiration biopsy or thick needle biopsy. The procedure is performed with imaging accompanied by ultrasound or computed tomography. Samples are taken with the help of a thinner needle, which is passed through a wide needle that pierces the lung membrane. In this way, the escaping of the lung membrane is prevented or even if the air escapes, it can be evacuated.
How is a liver biopsy done?
It is performed to examine the damage caused by many diseases such as hepatitis, fatty liver, and cirrhosis. It can also be applied to clarify the diagnosis of the existing mass in the liver. Since sedative medication will be administered via the intravenous line before the procedure, the patient should be fasted 5-6 hours before the procedure. A small incision is made in the relevant area of the patient lying on his back and a piece of tissue is taken with the needle biopsy method. The patient remains under observation in the hospital that day and is discharged the next day.
How is a kidney biopsy done?
In the diagnosis of undetected kidney disease, when it is necessary to obtain information about the status of the existing disease, when it is necessary to learn the status of the transplanted kidney, kidney biopsy is a procedure of about half an hour. It is performed under local anesthesia with ultrasound-guided needle biopsy method. Since there is a risk of bleeding after the procedure, the patient is kept under observation for 24 hours. In the meantime, the patient's condition is checked by making urine and blood counts.
How is a breast biopsy done?
With a breast biopsy performed in as little as 15 minutes, cell, tissue or mass removal can be performed. It is performed using ultrasound MRI or tomography, needle biopsy under local anesthesia, vacuum biopsy or surgical biopsy under general anesthesia. The factor in determining the method is the size of the audience.
How is a thyroid biopsy done?
The procedure, in which there is no possibility of bleeding, is performed under local anesthesia with ultrasound guidance. Before the biopsy procedure is started, the entry and passage route is determined by the radiologist with detailed ultrasound. Cells are taken from the thyroid nodule with the fine needle aspiration technique. If there is more than one nodule, the procedure is done one by one for each nodule. Thus, it is clarified whether the nodule is benign or malignant. After the procedure, the patient can return to his normal life after being kept under observation for about half an hour.
What are the types of biopsy?
• Needle Biopsy: It is applied with two different methods. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy, also known as percutaneous biopsy, is performed with the help of a black needle injector. This method, which is the process of taking cells from the targeted tissue, is mostly applied in thyroid nodules and prostate diagnosis. Thick needle biopsy, which is another needle biopsy, is a method in which cylindrical tissue pieces are taken from the targeted mass.
• Open Surgical Biopsy: A part of the mass in the suspected area or all of it, as in lumpectomy, is removed through the incision made under general anesthesia.
• Brush Biopsy: It is performed endoscopically and is a method of examining the swab taken by applying a small brush to the tissue.
• Chorionic Villus Biopsy: Chorionic villus biopsy, abbreviated as CVS, is a method applied to pregnant women between 10 and 12 weeks. It is made from the cervix or abdomen to detect genetic and chromosomal abnormalities of the baby in the mother's womb.
• Cone biopsy: It is the process of removing tissue in the form of a cone from the uterine cervix.
• Endoscopic Biopsy: Small tissue pieces are taken with instruments passed through the endoscope channel. With a lasso-like equipment, the tissue is cut by strangling or cauterizing, that is by burning, and is removed by holding it with another instrument.
• Senile Lymph Node Biopsy: Blue dye is applied to the patient in order to mark the lymph node where the cancer cells in the tumor are most likely to spread. Lymphatic vessels first carry this dye to the area where the cancer is located, namely the lymph node. With another device, the area with color change is detected and the relevant area is removed.
• Biopsy with Shaving Method: It is the process of removing the area under the lesion on the skin together with the upper part of the skin. With this method, the shaved area is removed parallel to the skin.
• Stereotactic Biopsy: With this method used in the brain and breast, the biopsy area is determined. With the help of tomography, the biopsy area is clearly determined. A biopsy is done with the help of a needle or wire.
• Punch Biopsy: With this method, which is mostly applied to the skin, a piece of tissue is removed with a small cutting tool.
• Vacuum Biopsy: Vacuum-assisted biopsy begins with the insertion of a needle with a sharp edge and a hole into the lesion. While the needle, which is moved back and forth, shaves the tissues, the tissues are pulled by the vacuum inside the needle.
All parts removed from the body with this and other biopsy methods are placed in transparent glass and plastic containers and sent to the pathology laboratory without disturbing the tissue integrity. Biopsies performed during the surgery are examined and reported macroscopically and microscopically by the specialist physician, provided that they are prioritized in the laboratory.
For a long and healthy life, do not forget to have your check-ups at regular intervals.