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What is the hormone progesterone?

What is the hormone progesterone?The hormone progesterone is a hormone that roughly prepares women for the period of pregnancy, and in a healthy, reproductive-age woman it is secreted by the ovaries in a cycle every month.

Progesterone is produced when an egg is released in the middle of the menstrual cycle, that is, during ovulation. Progesterone begins to thicken the endometrium (uterine wall) to allow a fertilized egg (embryo) to attach or cling to the uterine wall. In other words, it prepares the uterine wall for the development of the embryo, like a bed. But if the egg is not fertilized within the proper time, the body reduces progesterone secretion and the uterine wall is broken down and excreted, that is, menstrual bleeding (menstruation) occurs. If an embryo attaches to the lining of the uterus, again through hormones, news is delivered to the ovary, and as a result, the ovary produces progesterone for eight weeks. After the first eight weeks, the placenta takes over the production of progesterone for the remaining period of pregnancy.

Studies have shown that the hormone progesterone is synthesized not only in the ovaries and placenta, but also in the adrenal cortex in the central nervous system (CNS) and adrenal glands. However, the fact that both men and women synthesize this hormone indicates that the functions of this hormone are not limited only to the reproductive system of women. For example, current studies of the hormone progesterone neuroprotection in the central nervous system (nerve cell protection), neuromodulation (nerve cells be modified), myelination (myelin sheath of the nerve cells covered by a sheath called a transmission that provides some quick), neurogenesis (nerve cell development), neuroplasticity (brain cells develop new connections) and mood related to a variety of non-reproductive functions, organized by has been proven. Therefore, given the fact that progesterone is synthesized, metabolized and performs its effects on the central nervous system, it is appropriate to call this hormone a neurosteroid at the same time.

For a healthy pregnancy to occur, progesterone must be at a certain level. In particular, the determination of progesterone values is very important in the diagnosis or treatment of infertility. Therefore, sometimes doctors may ask expectant mothers for a progesterone test.
This test is Deciphered from the blood and in a healthy woman should be among the following values:

• 1 ng/mL or below in women after menopause and at the beginning of the menstrual cycle,
• Between 5 and 20 ng/mL in women in the middle of the menstrual cycle,
• Between 11.2 - 90 ng/mL in women who are in the first trimester of pregnancy (trimester),
• In women who are in the second trimester of pregnancy, between 25.6 - 89.4 ng/mL,
* In women who are in the third trimester of pregnancy, it should be between 48.4 - 42.5 ng/mL.
What are the symptoms of progesterone elevation?

The hormone progesterone begins to rise rapidly in the first trimester of pregnancy. Until the body adapts to this change, a number of complaints can be observed in expectant mothers. In addition, progesterone, congenital hyperplasia, adrenal problems such as problems with the adrenal gland, a decrease in the level of estrogen in the body or too much use of progesterone drugs taken orally and transdermal, similar effects can be observed. If progesterone is excessively elevated due to a supplement, then after a while its level decreases spontaneously.
Symptoms of mild progesterone elevation can be listed as follows:
* Feeling of drowsiness,
* Sluggish waking up,
* Tenderness in the breasts,
• Nausea,
* Fluctuation in weight gain (usually a slight increase in weight between 3-5 kg),
* Mild depression,
* Slight dizziness,
• Bloating,
* Discomfort or pain in the legs,
* Water retention of the body,
* Feeling anxious or nervous,
* Changes in libido (often the sex drive decreases).
What are the progesterone hormone side effects?

Progesterone, except for the reasons listed above (pregnancy, adrenal hyperplasia, etc.) does not spontaneously rise excessively. But in the treatment of progesterone deficiency, infertility or IVF, drugs containing the hormone progesterone are prescribed. In addition, progesterone hormone supplementation may be required in pregnant women who are at risk or have previously had a miscarriage, women with irregular menstruation, and patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. These drugs can be prescribed orally, by injection or as a transvaginal (inserted into the vagina) suppository. The use of drugs containing the hormone progesterone is risky for people with certain special health problems.
* Abnormal vaginal bleeding that the doctor has not checked,
* Breast cancer risk or history,
* Liver disease,

• The use of the hormone progesterone in patients who have had a stroke, heart attack, or blood clotting problems in the past years can be dangerous. These patients should definitely inform their doctor before using the hormone progesterone.
The hormone progesterone has the side effects listed below. These side effects are mild and temporary. If the symptoms are very serious and do not go away, you need to consult your doctor:

• Headache,
* Breast tenderness or pain,
* Stomach pain,
• Vomit,
• Diarrhea,
• Constipation,
• Tired,
* Muscle, joint or bone pain November 2019,
* Mood changes (such as irritability or excessive anxiety),
* Runny nose, sneezing and coughing,
* Vaginal discharge,
* Urinary tract problems, such as difficulty urinating.

In addition, although the hormone progesterone is very rare, more serious side effects can be observed. When you observe one of these symptoms, you need to urgently contact the medical institution:

* Formation of a lump in the breast,
* Severe migraines, headaches and dizziness,
* Slow or difficult speech,
* Weakness or numbness in the arms and legs,
* Lack of coordination or loss of balance,
* Shortness of breath,
* Rapid pulse or sharp chest pain,
* Spitting blood,
* Leg swelling or pain,
* Loss of vision, blurred or double vision,
* Swollen eyes,
* Unexpected vaginal bleeding,
* Uncontrollable hand tremor,
* Seizure (epilepsy crisis),
* Stomach pain or swelling,
•  Depression,
* Hives, skin rash, itching,
* Difficulty breathing or swallowing,
* Swelling of the face, throat, tongue, lips, eyes, hands, feet, ankles or lower legs,
* Hoarseness of voice.

What is low progesterone hormone?
Since the hormone progesterone is one of the main hormones for pregnancy, pregnancy will most likely not occur if the hormone progesterone is low. Although fertilization occurs in a healthy way in a woman's body, the uterine wall does not thicken enough when the progesterone hormone is insufficient. Therefore, it is not possible for the fertilized egg to attach to the uterine wall and pregnancy cannot be maintained in a healthy way. A low level of the hormone progesterone can lead to the risk of miscarriage and bleeding in pregnant women.
In women who are not pregnant, the symptoms of low progesterone hormone can be listed as follows:
* Menstrual cycle irregularity,
* Headache or migraine,
* Various mood changes (such as anxiety or depression),
* Irregular menstruation (With menstrual cycle irregularity, in some cases very little, in some cases severe bleeding may be observed).
Since progesterone and estrogen are hormones that work in opposition to each other, estrogen can become dominant in cases where progesterone is low in the female body. In this case, some symptoms may appear, which are also observed in menopause. The most important of these symptoms are;
* Weight gain,
* Fibrocystic breasts and breast tenderness,
* Decreased libido (sex drive),
* Fibroids,
* Can be listed as gallbladder problems.

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