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What is tuberculosis ?

What is tuberculosis ?Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that causes intense inflammation to develop, especially in the lungs, as a result of the entry of a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis into the human body through the respiratory tract.

. Its other name or name in medical language is Tuberculosis. The virus is spread by droplets through the respiratory tract of sick people through exhalation, sneezing or coughing. Healthy people in this environment get a microbe called Mycobacterium tuberculosis through the respiratory tract and the disease continues to spread in this way.
It is estimated that about 10 million people worldwide developed tuberculosis in 2020, and 1.5 million people died from the disease.

When the tuberculosis infection enters the body, it may not be active immediately and may give symptoms gradually. If the body's resistance is high, the infection does not become active, but if the person's immune system is weak, the infection can become active. Symptoms start off mild and may progress gradually. Symptoms of tuberculosis disease can be grouped into two groups: general complaints and lung-specific complaints. TB is known as a respiratory disease because it usually involves the lungs. However, it may also show involvement in other organs. Whichever organ the Mycobacterium tuberculosis virus is involved in, organ-specific findings occur.
Among the symptoms of tuberculosis are Dec
Night sweats,
Weight loss and loss of appetite
It is malaise.
Cough that lasts longer than two weeks
Expectoration or bloody sputum
Spitting blood
Pain in the chest and back
Shortness of breath and hoarseness take place.
Patients with a weakened immune system begin to experience symptoms in a short time. Droplets released into the air by a person carrying an active Tue virus can be transmitted from person to person. However, although the disease is contagious, it is not very easy to contract the disease. Although the main cause of the disease is bacteria, some ailments make it easier for a person to catch tuberculosis. These diseases include kidney disorders, heart diseases, HIV, various surgeries, Dec.s.
A person may develop tuberculosis after inhaling the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. When tuberculosis affects the lungs, the disease becomes the most contagious. Tuberculosis, that is, the state of tuberculosis infection, is divided into latent and active.
Latent Tuberculosis: A person may have tuberculosis bacteria in his body and not develop symptoms at all. Many people's immune system can contain bacteria so that they do not multiply and do not cause disease. In this case, a person becomes infected with tuberculosis, but there is no active disease. This is called latent tuberculosis. Individuals may not be aware that they are not experiencing symptoms. There is also no risk of passing a hidden infection to another person. But in case of latent infection, treatment is needed.
Active Tuberculosis: This is more common when the immune system is weakened due to illness or the use of certain medications.
When this happens, the bacteria can multiply and cause symptoms, resulting in active tuberculosis. During the active illness period, people develop symptoms and people can spread the infection.
Those who are at risk of developing active tuberculosis:
* Weak immune system
* The elderly and young children

• a persistent cough that lasts for 3 weeks
* bloody sputum
* Appetite and weight loss
* Fatigue and weakness
* Swelling in the neck
• Fire
* Chest pain
* Constantly swollen lymph nodes or "swollen glands•
• Bellyache
* Joint or bone pain
* Clouding of consciousness
* A persistent headache
* On guard

A person with a latent infection may not develop symptoms, infection may be revealed by tests. The test should be requested in the following cases.
* If you have spent time with someone who has TB or is at risk of tuberculosis
* Having spent time in a country with high tuberculosis rates
* Working in an environment where TB can be found
In the diagnosis of tuberculosis, a detailed clinical examination should be performed first. After evaluating the person's medical history by the doctor, it should be checked for swelling in the lungs and lymph nodes.
Two tests can show whether tuberculosis bacteria are present:
* Tuberculosis skin test
* Tuberculosis blood test
However, these cannot indicate whether TB is active or latent. To diagnose active tuberculosis disease, the doctor may prescribe a sputum test and chest X-ray. But it should be remembered, everyone with tuberculosis needs treatment, regardless of whether the infection is active or latent.

HOW IS TB (Tuberculosis) TREATED?
In the treatment, anti-inflammatory and preventive antibiotic therapy is performed. TB can be life-threatening if left untreated. Tuberculosis treatment is carried out with special antibiotics. There are different antibiotics that affect the tuberculosis microbe, and these drugs must be used in the appropriate dose and duration. Tuberculosis treatment lasts at least 6 months, with the guidance of a doctor, this period can be extended even longer. Monitoring the medications used is very important.
If it spreads throughout a person's body, the infection can cause problems with the cardiovascular system and metabolic function, among other problems.

Tuberculosis can also lead to sepsis, a potentially life-threatening form of infection
An active tuberculosis infection is contagious and potentially life-threatening if a person does not receive proper treatment. However, most cases are treatable, especially when doctors detect them early. Anyone who is at high risk of developing tuberculosis or has any symptoms of the disease should consult a doctor as soon as possible.

Tuberculosis, popularly known as the “subtle disease”, is a long-term disease that requires close monitoring and patience. Decongestant tuberculosis is a disease that requires close follow-up and patience. When the medications prescribed by the doctor are used regularly, effective and successful treatment is provided, the risk of transmission of the disease to surrounding people is reduced. If medications are not used regularly, resistant tuberculosis may develop.
The home of tuberculosis patients needs very good ventilation. Fresh air relaxes tuberculosis patients. Jul. The sun has the property of breaking the tuberculosis germ. Tuberculosis patients should avoid smoking and alcohol. In addition, they need to take care of their nutrition and consume plenty of fluids.

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