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What is Seborrheic Dermatitis?

What is Seborrheic Dermatitis?Seborrheic dermatitis is a skin disease that mainly affects the scalp. This disease causes skin redness, flaking and dandruff.

Apart from the scalp, it can also be seen in areas where sebaceous (oil) glands are most active, such as eyebrows, sides of the nose, between the chest, middle of the back, ears and body folds. It causes the appearance of the problem known as the host on the scalp of babies. Also known as seborrheic eczema, this disease can heal on its own without the need for treatment. In some people, repeated treatment applications may be required to improve the symptoms caused by the disease. Washing the affected areas regularly with suitable shampoos helps to alleviate the symptoms.

What Are the Symptoms of Seborrheic Dermatitis?
The symptoms of seborrheic dermatitis can differ from person to person. The most common symptoms can be listed as :
• Dandruff on the scalp, eyebrows or beard
• Yellowish whitish crusting on the scalp, face, armpits, chest, under the breasts
• Redness on the skin
• Itching
These symptoms seen in patients; It tends to intensify in situations such as stress, seasonal change, cold and dry weather.
Seborrheic dermatitis can lead to the development of a condition characterized by yellow-brown crusting on the scalp called a host, especially in babies under the age of three. Most babies recover from the host problem by one year of age. However, in some babies, this problem may continue until puberty.
Symptoms of the disease may not cause serious distress to many patients. However, if the symptoms cause difficulties in the patient's daily life or if the patient is uncomfortable with dandruff in the hair and lesions on the skin, he should definitely consult a dermatologist. Even if an infection has occurred on the skin, it is necessary to go to a doctor's control. If the methods applied at home are not sufficient for the patient to overcome the skin problems, it will be useful to consult a specialist.

What Causes Seborrheic Dermatitis?
The conditions that cause seborrheic dermatitis have not been fully determined yet. However, there are some situations that experts think may be effective in the development of the disease. The first of these occurs when a fungus called Malassezia Furfur affects the parts of the skin responsible for oil production. Normally, the fungus Malassezia furfur is also found in normal, healthy skin. However, in people whose skin is prone to oily skin or when the immune system is weakened, this fungus can spread and cause skin problems.
Other conditions that are thought to play a role in the development of seborrheic dermatitis are impaired immune response (immunosuppression), Parkinson's disease, facial palsy, changes in nutrition (zinc deficiency, niacin and pyridoxine deficiency).
There are several factors that can increase a person's risk of developing seborrheic dermatitis. These risk factors are:
• AIDS, some types of cancer and use of immunosuppressive drugs, which cause weakening of the immune system
• After severe medical conditions such as heart attack, stroke
• Psychiatric and neurological diseases such as Parkinson's disease, depression
• Some drugs.
Seborrheic dermatitis is most common in infants and adults aged 20-50 years. This disease is more common in men than women. Again, people with oily skin type have an increased risk of seborrheic dermatitis.

How Is Seborrheic Dermatitis Diagnosed?
The diagnosis of seborrheic dermatitis is made by a doctor's skin examination. Since seborrheic dermatitis can be confused with other skin diseases, a skin biopsy may be required for diagnosis, although rarely. Skin problems often confused with seborrheic dermatitis:
• Psoriasis (psora): Psoriasis also causes skin redness and flaking. It differs from seborrheic dermatitis in that it has more scaling and the lesions are silvery-white and thicker.
• Atopic Dermatitis: It causes itching and redness behind the knee, in front of the elbow and in the neck folds. In most patients, eczema shows a recurring feature.
• Tinea Versicolor: In this disease, skin rashes are usually located on the back and chest. These rashes are not red and itchy as in seborrheic dermatitis.
• Rosacea (Rose disease): This disease usually causes facial redness and acne-like rash. In addition, flaking is less in this disease. However, rosacea may be associated with seborrheic dermatitis.

Seborrheic Dermatitis Treatment
Medicinal shampoos, creams and lotions are mainly used in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis. Various practices that the patient will do at home can also alleviate the symptoms of the disease.
medicines used in the treatment of seborrheic :
• Shampoo, cream and ointments that reduce inflammation: Products containing various corticosteroids can be applied to the scalp. These products are very easy to use. However, care should be taken to use the minimum dose required during use. Uninterrupted long-term use of these products; may cause side effects such as thinning of the skin and permanent redness. Creams containing tacrolimus and pimecrolimus, which belong to the calcineurin inhibitor drug group, can also be used in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis. The side effects of these products are less than the side effects of products containing corticosteroids. Its effects such as burning, redness and sensitivity are at a tolerable level.
• Creams and shampoos containing antifungal: the doctor may prescribe antifungal (antifungal) creams and shampoos called ketoconazole Depending on the severity of the patient's symptoms.
• Pills containing antifungal: If the patient's symptoms do not improve with other treatments, oral antifungal drugs can be used under the control of your dermatologist.
Seborrheic dermatitis can be treated with simple home remedies and lifestyle changes. With these applications, improvement in the symptoms that develop due to the disease can be achieved. In order for the methods applied at home to be successful, the patient should know the skin type and the severity of the disease well. Applications made in the light of this information will be more effective.
Patients can use anti-dandruff shampoos to prevent dandruff formation on the scalp. The use of shampoos containing zinc pyrithione, selenium sulfide, ketoconazole, tar, salicylic acid can be beneficial against dandruff. The patient can try these products in order and choose the most suitable product for him. It is usually sufficient to use the appropriate product 3-4 times a week.

Other applications that may be useful in the treatment of seborrheic:
• Applying mineral oil or olive oil to the scalp and waiting for a few hours, then washing the hair will soften the skin. Then, by gently combing the hair, dandruff and flaking on the scalp are eliminated.
• Regular washing the face and the scalp with a mild soap can be effective against seborrheic dermatitis. In order not to dry the skin, the skin should be moisturized with suitable moisturizers after washing.
• Creams containing low-dose corticosteroids can be applied on the lesions on the skin. If these creams are not effective, various mixtures can be preferred.
• The use of hair styling creams, hair sprays and gels should be suspended until the seborrheic dermatitis treatment is over.
• People who have complaints on the eyebrows, on the sides of the nose, and on the beard and mustache areas should degrease their faces with suitable cleansers and then use suitable moisturizers. Creams containing short-term, low-dose corticosteroids, creams containing calciner inhibitors, and washing soaps with tea tree extract are among the products that can be used for this purpose.
• In cases where seborrheic dermatitis causes flaking on the eyelashes, the eyelashes can be washed with baby shampoo or eye shampoos containing tea tree extract. In addition to regular washing, the scales on the eyelashes can be carefully removed with cotton swabs (such as ear buds).
• For babies with host problems, shampoos that do not contain drugs should be used. After softening the scalp with olive oil, the baby's hair, which is washed, can be combed with a soft comb and the host rashes can be removed.
• Since spicy foods can also exacerbate seborrheic dermatitis, reducing bitter and spicy foods will alleviate seborrheic dermatitis flare-ups.
People with skin lesions resembling seborrheic dermatitis should apply to a health center if they cannot get rid of this problem with home applications. With detailed examination, the condition causing the lesion formation can be diagnosed.


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