Thus, cellular disorders are detected at an early stage before they develop into uterine and cervical cancer. The patient can completely regain his health.
What diseases is a smear test performed to diagnose?
A smear test is a test used to diagnose endometrial cancer, a cellular disorder and cancer precursor cells in the cervix, including cervical ( cervix ) cancer. Women are required to have a smear test in the routine determined by obstetricians and gynecologists.
How is a Smear Test performed?
A Smear Test is the process of taking a swab from the area called the cervix ( cervix ) painlessly with the help of a brush in a short period of time, such as 5-10 seconds.
The cervix is the part of the uterus located in the vagina and is the part that is visible to the eye with the application of a speculum during a gynecological examination. During the examination of the cervix, a round structure with a hole in the middle is observed in women who have not given birth. In women who give birth vaginally, the middle part becomes a horizontal line.
Frequently asked questions about smear tests
What Does It Mean If the Smear Test Result Is Positive or Negative?
They are terms that are not used today. A negative smear result indicates that the problem cannot be detected, while a positive smear result indicates the presence of a problem such as an infection cell disorder.
How is the Smear Test Result Evaluated?
Cancer precursor changes in the cervix, detected by a smear test, can be classified according to the severity and degree of the disease as follows:
ASCUS: The cells taken by the smear test are evaluated by the pathologist. During this assessment, in one or two areas, “if the pathologist doubts the presence of cancer precursor cells and cannot be sure, he reports them as ASCUS. This diagnosis does not unequivocally indicate cellular impairment. However, in such a case, a year is not expected for the renewal of the smear test. after 2-3 months, the smear test should be repeated.
In the diagnosis of ASCUS, the cervix is evaluated in detail with a magnifying glass called “colposcopy” instead of waiting 2-3 months to get a smear again. If a risky / suspicious finding is detected during this evaluation, a tissue sample can be taken as a small piece with a cervical biopsy procedure for a definitive diagnosis from that area and sent for examination.
Again, in patients with ASCUS, a Human Papillomavirus Typing Test can be performed to obtain detailed information about the significance of the event. According to this result, HPV vaccination can be given or detailed evaluation can be performed by colposcopy.
It would not hurt to wait 2-3 months for a re-smear to be taken, during which the disease does not progress.
As a result of the examination of the LSIL Smear test, cellular disorders were detected in some areas. Detected cancer precursor cells do not indicate that the patient has cervical cancer. L In 90% of cases diagnosed with SIL, if the immune system is good, spontaneous recovery and a full state of health occur. However, in 10% of patients with a non-strong immune system who neglect their follow-up health checks, the disease progresses and is called H SIL 3. By degrees, the disease can progress to the stage.
L Patients with SIL are examined in detail by enlarging the cervix with a colposcopy instrument. Thin tissue samples are taken from tissues from suspicious areas. This is called the ”cervical biopsy" procedure. The procedure may be a little painful. However, there is no need to give anesthesia to the patient.
HSIL: A tissue sample should be taken by biopsy from the places where it is absolutely necessary to perform colposcopy. According to the biopsy report, the approach is required.
What is the importance of a smear test?
Disorders and changes in the cells of the cervix can occur. The cells that undergo this change are called “cancer precursor cells ( cellular dysplasia) “.
The purpose of a smear test is to detect changes before they turn into cancer. Thus, a woman easily gets the opportunity to be treated before reaching the stage of cancer.
The main reason why normal cells in the cervix become cancer precursor cells is the Human Papillomavirus ( HPV ) .
HPV causes warts in the genital area and the formation of cancer precursor cells ( dysplasia ) in the cervix. HPV is most commonly transmitted sexually. In recent years, there has been an increase in HPV-related warts and cervical cancer precursor lesions in our country.
A smear test is an easy and painless procedure that is effective in detecting these cancer precursor changes at an early stage. Thanks to the smear test, cellular changes can be treated without turning into cervical cancer. After the treatment, the woman completely regains her health, she can become pregnant. She does not need to have her uterus removed, receive radiation or medication.
What Is the Reason for the Appearance of Cervical Cancer Precursor Cells?
The risk factors that increase the likelihood of the appearance of cancer precursor cells in the cervix in the smear test are located at the bottom;
• Having had a relationship at an early age
* The presence of more than one sexual partner
* History of sexually transmitted diseases (such as gonorrhea, syphilis, herpes virus)
* Presence of genital warts
* Poor genital care
Does a Smear Test Give a Definite Result?
A smear test is a screening test. He can't give exact information. Therefore, in suspicious cases, a cervical biopsy procedure is performed for a definitive diagnosis.
Tissues taken by cervical biopsy are sent to pathology. As a result of the examination of the tissues taken in the biopsy, 5 different results are reported:
1-Normal cells: Although there are signs indicating cellular disorders as a result of the smear, sometimes the biopsy result can be reported as clean. Jul. In this case, it is enough to repeat the smear test after 3-6 months.
2-CIN-1: The smear test should be repeated after 3-4 months.
4-CIN-3: If CIN-2 or CIN-3 is detected as a result of the smear, the upper layer of the cervix is removed by the LEEP procedure. This tissue taken is the size of the nail of our thumb. He is sent to pathology.
5-Cervical Cancer: If cervical cancer has been diagnosed as a result of a cervical biopsy, removal of the uterus, biopsy of the lymph nodes, radiation therapy, chemotherapy ( drug therapy ) is required.
The Importance of Control After a Smear Test
According to the results of the smear test, if cancer precursor cells ( dysplasia ) are detected in the cervix, the patient should come for check-ups at intervals. If the patient does not come to the controls and does not receive the necessary treatments;
• In mild disorders within 10-14 years
* In severe dysplasia, there is a risk of developing into cervical cancer within 1-5 years.
For this reason, it is of great importance to carry out annual female birth control and smear tests, regular check-ups in case of detection of cancer precursor cells in a smear test or biopsy.
How are Cancer Precursor Cellular Disorders in the Cervix Treated?
Mild cellular disorders can resolve spontaneously if the woman's immune system is strong. Therefore, it can be followed at regular intervals.
At The Controls;
* The cervix is carefully evaluated.
* If necessary, detailed observation is performed with a magnifying glass called colposcopy
* If there are smears and signs of infection, culture tests should be performed.
Important considerations in the complete disappearance of cancer precursor cellular irregularities in healing are as follows:
1. The immune system must be strong
2. Healthy eating,
3. Being away from stress,