A functional disorder that occurs in nerve and muscle cells on the right or left side of the body due to a blockage, rupture of one of the vessels that supplies the brain tissue, or a tumor that presses on the brain tissue is called hemiplegia.
in the first moments of brain damage, the contractile power of the muscles on the affected side of the body and the reflex of the tendons connecting these muscles are greatly reduced. This picture, loosely called hemiplegia, regresses over time and as a result of uncontrolled contraction of the muscles, spasticity appears. In the affected arm, a bending movement from the elbow inward, called flexion, is observed, while in the leg muscles, an extension position occurs, trying to bend the kneecap in the opposite direction. Since the reflexes of the structures called tendons that connect the muscles to each other are also greatly increased at this stage, these findings can be easily detected during nervous N examinations.
Hemiplegia, which occurs due to the pressure of lesions such as tumors or abscesses on the brain tissue, progresses much more slowly and can hardly be noticed. First of all, a slight loss of strength is observed in any part of the muscles that are managed by the November affected part of the brain. This state of weakness, which increases over time, progresses and affects one half of the body.
What Causes Hemiplegia?
Hemiplegia, as mentioned above, occurs as a result of oxygen deprivation of brain tissue due to blockage, rupture of one of the vessels supplying brain tissue, or lesions such as tumors or aspe that press on brain tissue. The largest part of hemiplegia is the disorders that develop due to stroke. Therefore, the conditions that cause stroke can also be counted as causes of hemiplegia. The main conditions that increase the risk of cerebrovascular accident (SVO) in a person and cause hemiplegia are:
The risk of stroke increases 4-fold in people with chronic blood pressure disease, and about 60% of all stroke tables develop due to hypertension. With appropriate doses of antihypertensive therapy, it is possible to reduce the risk of SVO by 40%.
Cardiovascular diseases affect all the vessels of the body, as well as the vessels of the brain, and can cause narrowing, hardening and blockage of these vessels. As a result of circulatory disorders in the vessels that feed the brain tissue, these tissues remain without oxygen and the risk of SVO increases. In particular, the risk of stroke increases 5 times as a result of a rhythm disorder called atrial fibrillation.
The functioning of all systems in the body is largely interrelated with each other. Therefore, in the presence of systemic diseases such as diabetes, the risk of many more health problems such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, vascular occlusion, obesity increases. Diabetes Mellitus (DM) patients are also 2 times more at risk of stroke.
Cigarette consumption has negative consequences on all organs, especially the lungs. It disrupts the vascular structure and circulatory system; reduces the oxygen density; causes damage to the brain and nerve cells. The risk of stroke increases by 2 times in people who smoke for a long time.
Symptoms of Hemiplegia
The symptoms that occur with hemiplegia vary according to the damaged area of the brain. In the case of damage to the right brain tissue, the muscle and nerve structures on the left side of the body are affected, while r damage to the left brain tissue causes hemiplegia on the right side of the body. However, common symptoms can be listed as follows:
• In the first stage of sudden onset of stroke, muscle strength loss occurs in the first stage, but in the later period, the sign of spasticity, defined as excessive contraction of the muscles, occurs. 2019 - While the spasticity condition in the arm muscles causes flexion movement in the form of bending from the elbow, extension movement is observed in the leg muscles, which can be described as the desire of the knee joint to bend in the opposite direction. This condition, defined as spastic hemiplegia, is one of the conditions that require highly specialized treatment.
* The arm and leg muscles that remain for a long time due to spasticity become stiffer over time and rigidity occurs. Rigidity, on the other hand, causes involuntary muscle movements, which are called dyskinesia. In more severe contractions, on the other hand, an uncontrolled tremor condition called tremor occurs.
* Loss of coordination experienced during complex functions such as speaking and walking is defined as ataxia and is one of the common symptoms that occur with hemiplegia.
* Common symptoms observed in hemiplegic patients are associated with motor functions. However, impairment in mental, psychological and psychosocial functions can also occur. While the right hemiplegia table usually shows disorders related to perceiving abstract concepts, the left hemiplegia table is more often associated with expression disorders such as loss of anger control and compulsive behaviors.
The first step of hemiplegia treatment includes physical therapy and rehabilitation applications. After a general examination of the patient, an appropriate treatment plan is formed. the most appropriate plan is made to ensure the normal movement of the joints and to increase muscle strength while maintaining the existing muscle functions. muscle strength is brought to the maximum possible level with the treatment plan created by the expert physiotherapists in the field and specific to the patient together with the patient.
Immediately after the incident, an acute rehabilitation phase is initiated in order to prevent muscle loss. At this stage, exercises called “passive range of motion” are applied primarily for each joint in the patient's body. While exercises are being performed on the affected side, exercises aimed at strengthening the muscles and joints on the intact side should also be planned. In the acute phase, passive exercise, active-assisted exercise, active, active-resistant exercise and progressive-resistant exercise options are preferred according to the condition of the muscles, those that are suitable for the patient. it is expected that hemiplegic muscles will be strengthened, permanent muscle loss will be prevented and the patient will have gained the ability to sit in bed as a result of November exercises performed regularly.
The next step is called the chronic rehabilitation phase, in addition to the movements applied in the acute phase, various exercises aimed at gaining independence in daily life activities begin to be applied.
Physical therapy applications and rehabilitation care should not be considered separately from each other. In addition to the exercises that the patient will perform in the clinic, the exercises that will be performed at home should also be planned specifically for the patient, and each patient should be carefully evaluated from a spiritual, mental and psychosocial point of view, as well as from a physical and neurological point of view. In order to prevent permanent loss of function due to hemiplegia disease, it is extremely important to start physical therapy and rehabilitation practices as soon as possible and to be in cooperation with neurologists and physiotherapists who are experts in their field.