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What is hypothyroidism?

What is hypothyroidism?Insufficient functioning of the thyroid gland, the inability to produce enough thyroid hormones to meet the needs of the body, is called hypothyroidism.

Thyroid hormones basically control the energy balance and metabolic events in the body. If the thyroid hormones (T4 and T3) are low in the bloodstream, complaints and symptoms occur.
In 95 percent of patients with hypothyroidism, the problem is in the thyroid gland itself. This condition is called “primary hypothyroidism”.

What are the symptoms of hypothyroidism?
Symptoms of hypothyroidism may differ. While some patients have no symptoms of hypothyroidism, some patients may experience dramatic or even life-threatening symptoms and signs.
The severity of symptoms is associated with the degree of hormone deficiency and the duration of the development of hormone deficiency.
Thyroid hormones normally stimulate metabolism. Therefore, the vast majority of the symptoms of hypothyroidism are related to a slowdown in metabolic functions.
Among the general symptoms of hypothyroidism are Decongestant;
* Weight gain,
* There are symptoms such as cold intolerance.
*Changes caused by hypothyroidism in the skin
*Hypothyroidism can reduce sweating. Also;
* Dryness and thickening of the skin,
* Reduction and thinning of hair,
* Loss of eyebrows,
*May cause nails to break.
*Effects of hypothyroidism on eye health
*Edema around the eyelids can be detected in hypothyroidism.
*After treatment of hyperthyroidism related to Graves' disease (toxic goiter), eye findings may persist in patients who develop hypothyroidism. In these patients, protrusion of the eyes, vivid gaze, problems with eyelid closure, eye movement disorders can be detected.
Symptoms caused by hypothyroidism in the heart and vascular system
* Slows down the heart rate and can reduce the contractile function of the heart.
• It can cause an increase in blood pressure and an increase in blood cholesterol levels.
In patients with hypothyroidism;
• tiredness,
* Complaints such as shortness of breath may be seen.
These symptoms, which occur due to hypothyroidism, may also be more severe in patients with other heart conditions. In short, hypothyroidism can lead to disruption of all vital functions of the heart.
Symptoms caused by hypothyroidism in the respiratory system
Hypothyroidism can lead to a decrease in respiratory November and lung function. The resulting respiratory system disorder can further aggravate the deterioration of the cardiovascular system.
* Causing the tongue to grow and obstructing the airways during sleep,
• It can lead to thickening of the voice.
Symptoms caused by hypothyroidism in the stomach and intestinal tract
Hypothyroidism can slow down stomach and bowel movements and lead to constipation.
Symptoms caused by hypothyroidism in the reproductive system
Menstrual irregularities are frequently observed in women with hypothyroidism. There may be a decrease in the frequency of the menstrual cycle, the inability to menstruate at all, or excessive bleeding during menstruation. Disruption of menstrual patterns and ovulation function reduces the likelihood of conception. In addition, women with hypothyroidism have a greater risk of miscarriage in early pregnancy.
Symptoms caused by hypothyroidism in the nervous and system
Hypothyroidism suppresses the nervous system;
• tiredness,
* Tendency to sleep,
• It can lead to problems such as depression.
Myxedema coma that occurs due to hypothyroidism
Although it is very rare, in patients with severe hypothyroidism;
• As a result of exposure to cold and the use of certain medications, a clinical picture characterized by a closure in consciousness and an advanced decrease in body temperature, called a life-threatening “myxedema coma”, may occur.

What are the causes of hypothyroidism?
At the beginning of the diseases that cause hypothyroidism, there is Hashimato disease, which occurs when the thyroid gland is damaged for an unknown reason.
Thyroid gland surgeries also cause hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism develops when there is not enough tissue left to secrete hormones after thyroid surgery. For this reason, thyroid hormones should be measured and monitored in patients undergoing thyroid surgery.
In patients treated with radioactive iodine, since the thyroid gland is destroyed, not enough hormones can be secreted, and hypothyroidism develops.

Who has hypothyroidism often?
* In diabetics,
• In those with anemia,
• Rheumatoid arthritis patients,
* it is common in women over the age of 60.
Patients with high blood fat levels, such as cholesterol and triglycerides, should also be investigated for hypothyroidism. In addition, hypothyroidism should also be looked for in patients with depression, women who do not have children or have menstrual irregularities.

How is hypothyroidism diagnosed?
In the old years, the diagnosis of hypothyroidism could not be made unless the symptoms and signs were obvious, and therefore the diagnosis of hypothyroidism was delayed. Nowadays, thyroid function tests can be easily performed in many health centers. Thus, in many patients, the diagnosis of hypothyroidism can be detected at an early stage without obvious complaints and signs.

How is hypothyroidism treated?
Hypothyroidism is a chronic disease that requires lifelong treatment. Although it is very rare, the functions of the thyroid gland in a patient with hypothyroidism can return to normal without treatment.
Hypothyroidism treatment is based on replacing the missing thyroid hormones. Normally, the thyroid gland produces two hormones called T4 and T3. The T3 hormone is basically formed by converting the T4 hormone into the T3 hormone in various tissues. The treatment is done with synthetic T4, which is the one-to-one equivalent of the natural T4 hormone produced by the thyroid gland. Symptoms begin to improve within 2 weeks of the start of treatment. However, in patients with severe hypothyroidism, it may take months for symptoms to completely improve.

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