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What is a Heart Attack?

What is a Heart Attack?A heart attack that causes 200 thousand people to lose their lives every year in Turkey is the sudden blockage of the arteries that feed the heart,

 Resulting in the heart muscle not getting enough oxygen and, accordingly, damage to the heart tissue November. With the accumulation of substances such as fat and cholesterol on the walls of arteries that provide blood flow to the heart, structures characterized as plaques appear. The proliferation of these plaques over time narrows the vessel and cracks begin to form on the vessel. Clots that appear in these vascular cracks lead to blockage of the vessels, causing a heart attack.

What Are the Symptoms of a Heart Attack?
The proportion of people who lose their lives from a heart attack is 30 times higher compared to those who lose their lives due to a traffic accident. As is known, early diagnosis saves lives when it comes to health, so it is vital that you contact a health facility as soon as you suspect a heart attack. In such cases, where it is extremely important to take action as early as possible on the diagnosis, it is very valuable for the patient's health to recognize the symptoms caused by the disorder.
The most common symptoms of a heart attack are:
1. Rib Cage Pain
 A heart attack usually causes pain in the middle part of the rib cage. This pain, which usually lasts for a few minutes, can be felt as pressure, heaviness and tightness.
2. shortness of breath
 Shortness of breath, one of the symptoms of a heart attack, can develop before or after pain in the rib cage.
3. Pain That Occurs in the Upper Part of the Trunk
 Pain that occurs in the back, shoulders, neck area, jaw, one or both arms, and the upper part of the stomach is one of the symptoms of a heart attack.
Apart from the most common symptoms, we can list the symptoms of a heart attack as follows:
● Nausea and Vomiting,
● Sudden cold sweat flushes,
● Sudden dizziness,
● Sudden attacks of fatigue for no reason (Usually occur in women),
● The current complaints are increasing.
Risk Factors That Trigger a Heart Attack
There are two important risk factors that trigger the risk of a heart attack: The first of these factors is the ‘non-modifiable risks’ group, in which you do not have any changes that can be made. We can list the group of risks that cannot be changed as follows:
● Genetic factors,
● Old,
● Being a man (the fact that the hormone estrogen protects against the risk of a heart attack indicates that the risk of a heart attack is higher in men and postmenopausal women.)
Men and their family members who have a history of heart attack at an early age are at a greater risk of heart attack risk. These risks increase in parallel with age.
The second important risk factor is included in the group of ‘changeable risks’, as it can vary depending on one's own efforts. We can list the group of modifiable risks as follows:
●  smoke,
● Diabetes(Diabetes),
● High blood pressure,
● Obesity.
What Are the Causes of a Heart Attack?
● One of the most important reasons that increase the risk of heart attack is smoking. The risk of a heart attack is almost three times higher in men and women who smoke.
● The rate of LDL, which is defined as bad cholesterol in the blood and increases the risk of heart attack as it rises; sausage, salami, sausage, frying, shrimp, full-fat dairy products, mayonnaise and cream increases with the consumption of foods such as. Therefore, it is necessary to stay away from these foods.
● Diabetes is one of the diseases that causes a heart attack. It is known that most diabetics lose their lives due to a heart attack.
● With an increase in blood pressure, the pressure in the blood vessels also rises, and the risk of a heart attack increases by 50% in parallel.
● Advanced age is one of the reasons that increases the risk of heart attack. Because with age, there are distortions in the structure of the vessels.
● Obesity, which causes dysfunction of blood vessels, hardening of the arteries and premature aging, can be cited as one of these causes. High blood pressure, cholesterol and diabetes, which occur together with obesity, also have an important place in the causes of heart attack.
● Finally, an increase in substances such as Dec-reactive protein, fibrinogen, homocysteine and lipoprotein A produced in the liver in the blood are also among the factors that trigger a heart attack.
How Long Does a Heart Attack Last?
At the time of a heart attack, symptoms can last for more than 20 minutes or even hours. Heart attack pain, which is quite severe, causes a feeling of pressure and heaviness. In addition, sweating, indigestion and fear of Decease are among the conditions that occur at the time of a heart attack.
What Should Be Done at the Time of a Heart Attack?
At the time of a heart attack, severe pain occurs, which begins as pain, burning and squeezing in the chest, descends to the left arm and pinky finger, and then spreads to the neck area. A heart attack develops very suddenly, in some cases accompanied by severe manifestations. However, most people start with a slight pain or discomfort. This pain, which usually lasts more than half an hour, is aggravated if you move. This pain can be accompanied by cold sweats and nausea.
At the time of a heart attack, a health facility should be reached without wasting time. Until we reach the health facility, the patient who has had a heart attack, we can list the things that should be done during the crisis as follows:
● The moment you feel the symptoms of a heart attack, if you are standing, sit down and rest where you are. Because moving will increase your body's oxygen demand. 
● If you have things on you, such as a shirt, tie, loosen them as much as possible. By the way, you can call an ambulance with your phone or call the nearest one Decently.
● If there is someone next to you and this person is not knowledgeable in first aid, do not let him interfere with you. Instead, have the person next to you open the windows and doors and let the oxygen flow.
● If a heart attack starts while driving, pull over and ask for help.
What Are the Heart Attack Treatment Methods?
Early diagnosis and subsequent early treatment minimize the damage to the heart. In cases where a heart attack is suspected, some treatments are applied, even if the exact diagnosis has not been made. We can list these applications as follows:
1.) Aspirin to prevent blood clotting
2.) Nitroglycerin to soothe chest pain and subsequently improve blood flow
3.) Oxygen therapy
After the diagnosis of a heart attack is confirmed, specialist doctors will begin the necessary treatment without wasting time to open the blockage that occurs in the heart vessels. We can express these treatment methods with the following titles: Thrombolytic therapy and Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.
Thrombolytic Therapy(Clot Dissolving Drugs)
It is a treatment method in which clot dissolving drugs are applied intravenously to dissolve the clot that occurs in the vein. Although this drug treatment is effective within the first 6 hours after a heart attack, it should be applied as soon as the diagnosis of a heart attack becomes final. Since these drugs have side effects that cause severe bleeding, this method is preferred in a limited group of patients in areas where coronary angiography is not possible.
Percutaneous Coronary Intervention(Coronary Angiography and Angioplasty)
This non-surgical method is used to open vessels that are blocked or narrowing has occurred. With this method, a thin, plastic tube with a balloon at the end is advanced through the arm or inguinal vein into the vein. When the stenosis level is reached, the balloon is inflated and the plaque and clot in the vein are attached to the vein wall and thus the blocked veins are opened. Thanks to this, blood flow in the blood vessel is ensured. During this procedure, structures called stents are placed, which ensure that the place of stenosis remains open for many years.
Apart from these treatment methods, other treatments for heart attack are medications and the placement of a healthy lifestyle in the patient.

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