What is a Wart?
Warts are benign (benign) lesions that occur on the mucous membranes and skin.
These lesions, which are caused by a virus called HPV, are divided into many subtypes. The spread of warts between people Decays through direct or indirect contact. Conditions in which the normal epithelial barrier, the upper layer of the skin, is damaged can prepare the ground for the development of warts.
Although there are various difficulties encountered in the treatment of warts, these lesions usually tend to regress spontaneously within a few years. HPV infections, which have more than 100 subtypes, may have a predisposition to cancer development in diseases that have formed with subtypes numbered 6, 11, 16, 18, 31 and 35. Transformation into malignant formations is detected especially in people with warts in the genital area, with immunodeficiency.
What Causes Warts?
A wart is an infection caused by human papillomaviruses, called HPV for short. Only two types of warts are not caused by HPV. It is formed by the molluscum contagiosum virus from the molluscum contagiosum poxvirus family, also called the bellied wart. In seborrheic warts, on the other hand, the causative agent is not a virus. These are also called seborrheic keratoses and, in fact, they are not real warts and therefore do not carry infectious properties. Although there is no definite answer to the question of what causes warts, it would not be wrong to say that they are more common in people with a weak immune system.
Some subtypes of the HPV virus, of which there are more than 100 subtypes, are specific to certain areas of the body. However, this does not apply to warts transmitted by close contact. It should be remembered that warts caused by any type of HPV virus can form on any part of the body. The wart, which can also occur in mucosal areas other than the skin, is usually limited to skin involvement. The lesions and subtypes formed specifically by the HPV virus, which tends to multiply in the upper skin layers, can be summarized as follows:
• HPV subtypes associated with the formation of common warts can also occur in subtypes 1, 3, 27, 29, and 57, mainly HPV type 2 and HPV type 4. The most commonly detected factor for this type of wart is HPV type 4.
* Flat warts occur as a result of HPV types 3, 10 and 28.
* Deep foot and hand warts are infections caused by HPV type 1 in general. In addition to this type, HPV types numbered 2, 3, 4, 27 and 57 can also trigger the development of warts on the hands and feet.
Are Warts Contagious?
Warts, which can be widely seen throughout the world, are a disease that affects about 1 in 10 of the human population. In school-age children, its frequency is detected as 2 times higher. The development of warts is more often detected in people engaged in meat work, such as butchers, or in people with immunodeficiency. When the distribution of the disease between the sexes is examined, it is seen that men and women suffer from the disease equally Decently. These hard and non-cancerous swellings occur on the surface of the skin, and contact with the skin area where this infection is present is the main factor in the spread of the disease to other people.
Warts caused by viruses are extremely contagious. The viruses that cause these warts can be transmitted directly from person to person, sometimes indirectly through objects such as towels or razor blades. Therefore, it is necessary to avoid close contact with people with warts and the joint use of personal items. For example, a wart on the sole of the foot is easily spread to other individuals by wearing slippers belonging to the person. Although the formation of warts is not always observed in a healthy person who comes into contact with this area of an individual with warts, it is quite possible to contract the HPV virus. Each person's immune response to this virus is unique, and this individual immune response also determines whether warts will form. Genital warts that occur with some types of HPV are transmitted, especially through sexual contact.
There is a period of between four weeks and eight months between the Decantation of the virus into the body and the appearance of the wart. If there are wounds on the skin, it becomes easier to become infected with wart viruses. At the same time, the fact that the skin is moist or wet causes an increased risk of transmission. Therefore, it is often transmitted in environments such as swimming pools, saunas and hammams. To prevent the transmission of warts that occur on various roads may not always be possible, but clean your hands regularly, keeping any region of the skin that occurs following injury of the wound cleaned up and avoid contact with other people's warts are among the basic steps that can be taken to prevent interpersonal transmission. At the same time, a person who has warts on any part of his body can also infect other parts of it. In order to prevent this situation, various precautions can be taken, such as not itching the wart lesions, keeping them dry, avoiding contact of the blade with the wart during shaving, or using objects to be used on the surface of the skin in a way that is different for the warty area and the unaffected area.
What Are the Types of Warts?
There are more than 100 types of HPV that cause warts. Depending on the type of virus responsible for the infection and the area in which it settles, morphologically different types of warts appear. There are also some skin lesions that resemble warts, but have a different origin. Below are some explanations of the most important types of warts:
VERRUCA VULGARIS (COMMON WARTS)
Verruca vulgaris is the most common type of wart and can be seen on all sides of the body. But it is most often found on the hands and feet. It tends to settle on the fingers, but rather on the edges of the nails. The size of these warts can reach up to the size of a pea. As a rule, verrucae vulgares does not cause pressure pain or itching.
Another name for warts that settle on the nail bed is a periungual wart. Lesions that begin as pinheads grow slowly and may cluster over time and acquire the appearance of cauliflower. Warts of this type are usually detected in children and young adults who have a habit of biting nails.
VERRUCA PLANA (FLAT WARTS)
In light microscopy examinations, it can be seen that verruca vulgaris and verruca plana are quite similar lesions. Flat warts appear especially on the face, thighs and arms. Some flat warts may be too small to notice at first glance. The upper part of the lesions has a flat appearance, as if rasped. The color of flat warts can be pink, brown or yellowish in color.
VERRUCA FILIFORMIS (FILAMENTOUS WART)
It has an elongated, thread-like body and is a special form of verruca vulgaris type warts. It tends to protrude on the face (eyelids, lips, nose) or neck, especially in older individuals. These warts can sometimes be itchy. In addition, irritation or injury may occur during washing, drying or shaving. It is quite uncomfortable from a cosmetic point of view, and therefore it is recommended to be treated.
Filiform warts are quite different from other warts in terms of their appearance. Their long protrusions can reach a length of 1-2 millimeters through the skin. This type of wart, which can be yellow, brown, or skin-colored, does not show clusters. They are also known as facial warts because of the region in which they occur.
VERRUCA PLANTARIS (WARTS ON THE SOLES OF THE FEET)
Warts that appear on the soles of the feet. These warts are quite painful. It is usually transmitted when walking barefoot in public areas such as a swimming pool, hammam, gym. Cracks on the sole of the foot can have a facilitating effect on the development of plantar warts. During the formation of warts, it first manifests itself on the skin in the form of a flat circular scar around the pit in the middle. Over time, the warts on the soles of the feet acquire a yellow color and a crusty appearance. Some people may have a black area in the central part of the wart.
Bands containing salicylic acid are preferred most often in the treatment. Apart from this treatment, various other wart treatment methods such as liquid nitrogen, curettage and laser treatment can be used.
Although genital warts are soft lesions, they can cause uncomfortable complaints such as pain and itching. This sexually transmitted type of wart occurs with HPV types that have a low risk of developing cancer.
Genital warts may not always be visible in size. This type of wart, whose colors and shapes are also quite variable, generally has a slightly darker appearance than the skin color. The upper part of the wart is slightly raised in the form of cauliflower. Genital warts can occur clustered or singly. The penis, testicular skin (scrotum), groin, thighs and around the anus constitute the areas where genital warts are detected in men. In women, on the other hand, the formation of genital warts can be detected in the area inside and outside the vagina or anus, or in the area of the cervix, known as the cervix.
Sometimes it manifests itself with symptoms that are formed by warts that cannot be seen from the outside. Complaints such as vaginal discharge, itching, bleeding, or burning are among the symptoms that may occur in the presence of genital warts. Decongestants are the most common causes of genital warts.
BELLIED WARTS (MOLLUSCA CONTAGIOSA)
Umbilical warts, although their appearance is very similar to a wart, are not real warts and are not caused by human papilloma viruses. Unlike real warts, the early microorganism in these wart-like, harmless skin nodules is the molluscum contagiosum virus. Umbilical warts are more likely to be located in groups on the body. In adults, it occurs most often in the genital area. In children, it is located on the trunk, face, neck or armpits.
Seborrheic warts are also not real warts. It is not known exactly why they are formed. However, it is not caused by viruses and is therefore not contagious. It occurs in the elderly and is also called seborrheic keratosis. It occurs on the face, chest, back, back of the hands, arms and legs. Their appearance is diverse and they have different subtypes. Treatment is performed surgically or by laser.