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What is butterfly disease (Lupus)?

What is butterfly disease (Lupus)?Butterfly disease (Lupus) or Systemic Lupus Erythematosus with its full name is a rheumatic disease that affects many organs in the body at once.

It is popularly known as butterfly disease, as it is characterized by a butterfly-style red rash on the Decollete face. Lupus disease is one of the diseases referred to as autoimmune. In autoimmune diseases, the patient's immune system malfunctions and perceives the person's own cells as foreign substances. In lupus disease, the immune system attacks the substance called “collagen”, which is an important building block in the body.

Causes of butterfly disease (Lupus)
The cause of the disease is not known for sure. Genetic, environmental factors and hormones play a role in the formation of the disease. It is known that stress, ultraviolet rays, infections and some medications trigger the disease. Estrogen from female hormones increases the occurrence of the disease, testosterone decreases. In SLE, it is the case that the body's immune system creates a reaction against its own tissues.

Symptoms of butterfly disease (Lupus)
Lupus disease can manifest itself with very different signs and symptoms, as it can affect the entire body. Especially in the initial stages of the disease, joint pain and general signs of illness are frequent. Some of the most common signs and symptoms of lupus disease are;
•  tiredness
•  Fatigue
* Skin changes, The butterfly-shaped rash that appears especially on the nose and cheeks is typical. But a rash develops on any area of the skin that is exposed to the sun.
* Signs due to inflammation in the vessels, Small vessels of the skin are often affected and inflammation develops, which is called vasculitis. There is a subcutaneous hemorrhage in the form of spots around the nails. In addition, it can also cause inflammation of the oral mucosa.

* Findings associated with hair, There may be regional hair loss, and usually new ones do not come to replace these lost hair.
* Raynaud's syndrome, in which there is a white and purple discoloration of the fingertips that occurs in the cold, is an important finding.
* Joint manifestations, There is arthralgia, that is, joint pain in both large and small joints. The pain is more pronounced, especially in the morning. In some patients, arthritis, that is, swelling due to joint inflammation, redness and increased heat are also observed.
* Muscle involvement. Pain and inflammation develop in the muscles.
* Renal manifestations, Renal involvement occurs in 70% of patients. In these people, blood and protein are detected in the urine. Edema develops due to fluid retention in the tissues. In severe cases, kidney inflammation can occur, which can go up to kidney failure.
• There are symptoms such as migraine, epilepsy, balance problems and psychological problems associated with the nervous system. In some patients, a stroke may occur.
* Digestive problems are common due to digestive system involvement and pancreatitis.
• There are signs of inflammation in the lining of the lungs or heart, such as chest pain. When there is an accumulation of fluid and inflammation between the lung membranes, a chest pain appears that increases with breathing. Decongested chest pain occurs when there is a build-up of fluid between the lung membranes and inflammation. Inflammation of the heart membrane is called pericarditis and is common in lupus.
* Pneumonia develops as a result of inflammation in the lung tissue.
• There are growths in the lymph nodes, spleen and liver.
* Abdominal pain occurs because the abdominal membrane called the peritoneum is inflamed.

Diagnosis of butterfly disease (Lupus)
The diagnosis of butterfly disease (lupus) is made with the help of some blood tests along with clinical symptoms. Patients are examined for complete blood count, kidney tests, chest X-ray, LE cell, anti DNA and ANA. If the physician deems it necessary and according to the suspected organ involvement, he may order many more tests.
Initially, do not show typical signs of the disease
it is very difficult to diagnose yen in patients. SLE can be confused with many tissue diseases.

Treatment of butterfly disease (Lupus)
There is no definite cure for lupus disease. Treatment is applied to stop the progression of the disease, prevent vital complications and relieve symptoms. Therefore, early diagnosis is of great importance. Because it is not possible to return the advanced disease.
Treatment is specially planned for each patient according to the severity of the disease. It is essential to use anti-inflammatory drugs for inflammations that occur in many organs and tissues of the body. Steroid group drugs that suppress the immune system are also used. Patients with a tendency to blood clots are prescribed blood thinning agents, such as aspirin.

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